An ovarian cyst is a small, abnormal, fluid-filled growth. It is related to the menstrual cycle and appears from adolescence to menopause. They are generally benign cysts that regress by themselves at the end of the cycle. They do not cause any pain, but there are a few signs that can reveal them by describing the pain to your doctor.
They can be detected by palpation or examination and in most cases are easily treated. Sometimes they need to be removed because they are several centimeters long or because there are too many of them on one or both ovaries.
Symptoms of ovarian cyst
Often painless, embarrassing or more rarely generating sudden and brutal twinges, the symptoms are as follows
- Lower abdominal pain
- Pelvic pain
- Bleeding of uterine origin occurring outside of menstruation
- A feeling of pelvic heaviness
- Heaviness in the lower abdomen
- Bowel pain
- Need to urinate more frequently
- Persistent fever
- Nausea or vomiting
- Cycle irregularities
- Pain in the ovaries that occurs during sexual intercourse
In the case of larger cysts, severe pain may be caused by the ovary turning on itself due to the weight of the cyst. Sometimes a cyst may bleed inside or burst.
Large cysts may press on the bladder or rectum and follow urinary symptoms or constipation. Follicular cysts and luteal cysts are related to menstrual cycles. Endometriosis cyst, Cystadenoma, Dermoid cyst, Unilocular cyst, Polycystic ovaries are independent.
They are discovered during more thorough or routine examinations.
Diagnosis, treatment and common interventions
The gynecologist will feel the cyst during the annual consultation by performing a vaginal touch: this examination allows to find the volume of the cyst, and the place where it is located, whether it is benign or malignant.
Ultrasound is the most common examination. It allows the position and size of the cyst to be assessed, if there is one. It should be done before ovulation for more precision. If you are pregnant, the cyst is certainly luteal, which is why a pregnancy test is systematic.
A CT scan and/or MRI
Laparoscopy is a light surgical procedure that allows the cyst to be approached and removed. The cysts will be analyzed and a biopsy will be performed. Laparotomy is a surgical operation that allows the removal of the cyst.
A functional ovarian cyst without serious complications requires simple medical supervision on your part.